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They impose the fundamental principles of justice and constitutional laws on way of life: that is, its members' commitment to challenge and to transform injustices and . it is employed to protect other global social, economic, ecological and political Justice as Attunement: Transforming Constitutions in Law, Literature.

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On the control treatment the sole feed of the cows from M ay to October was grazed herbage. On the supplement treatment the cows grazed the same pasture as the control animals, but in addition were fed concentrates at an average rate oi 21 lb per 10 lb milk. Milk yields on the two treatments were not significantly ditferent, either during the summer feeding period or for the complete lactation. The lengths of the lactations and the fat and S. Volume 19 , Issue 4. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.

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  1. Nutritional benefits for dairy cows!
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  5. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Citing Literature. Volume 19 , Issue 4 December Pages Starchy energy from cereals can have a beneficial impact on milk protein production.

    The readily fermentable energy in wheat, in particular, means acidosis can be a risk with high inclusions. Peas and beans can be slightly unpalatable due to tannin levels. Less need for balancing than some other straights may add to their cost-effectiveness. Back to Top Purchased Straights Most of the wide range of other straight feed ingredients available are by-products of food or industrial processes, their nutritive value depending both on the value of their original raw materials and the way in which these have been processed.


    Key Purchased Straights Points: The precise description and value of the feed should be obtained before purchase. Analysis of each load can significantly improve the accuracy of rationing. Some ingredients need particularly careful use in rations. Over-processing and contamination can interfere with nutritive value.

    Purchasing from a reputable source can reduce the risk of problems. Mineral supplements will generally be needed. Significant on-farm ration formulation work is required. Back to Top Blends Blends are essentially a half-way house between straights and compounds.

    Feeding Concentrates for Dairy Cows

    Key advantages of Blends: Known nutrient sources and analyses. Offering some economy compared with compounds.

    Farm Resources

    Improving cash flow compared to large loads of individual straights. Saving on farm mixing and ration formulation complexity. Key Blends Points: Different sources can differ widely in the sophistication of blending.


    Mixing can be variable, depending on product. Ingredients can separate out during storage and handling. Minerals and vitamins may or may not be included. Some degree of farm ration formulation skill is likely to be required. Back to Top Compounds Proprietary compound feeds represent the ultimate in sophistication and convenience as far as dairy concentrates are concerned, the supplier taking on all responsibility for formulation.

    Key advantages of Compounds: Being nutritionally consistent from pellet to pellet.

    Feeding Concentrates

    Giving no opportunity for ingredient selection during feeding. Offering fully balanced feeds with mineral and vitamin inclusions. Providing the greatest ease and convenience of use. Improving cash flow compared to blends or straights. No farm mixing or ration formulation required.

    Key Compounds Points : Formulation and processing makes them more expensive than either straights or blends. Little information may be provided on the precise ingredients or formulation.

    Focuses on feeding concentrates to pasture fed cows to achieve high milk production.

    The only flexibility offered to adjust rationing is by the amount fed. On most units it is generally difficulty to store more than two compounds simultaneously. The consistency and quality of pelleting may vary between suppliers, mills and deliveries.